The young stages of the leafy Hepaticae: a resume

TitleThe young stages of the leafy Hepaticae: a resume
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1956
AuthorsFulford M

Among the leafy Hepaticae new plants may arise through the germination of spores, the germination of gemmae, and through the regeneration of individual cells of the parent plant. The sporeling, which results from the germination of a spore, includes the protonema and the young axis (stem), first with primary leaves and later with juvenile leaves and underleaves. This precedes the stem with leaves and underleaves of the adult form. The gemmaling results from the germination (of development) of a gemma. It has been pointed out repeatedly that the pattern of development of the gemmaling is like that of the sporeling, i.e., a protonema and stem with primary leaves and later juvenile leaves and underleaves, before the initiation of the adult form of stem and leaves. There are, however, some exceptions to this general statement. The gemmae, which are characteristic of a great number of the genera, are one- to many-celled and sometimes elaborate in structural detail.