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Are you scared yet? Variations to cue indices elicit differential prey behavioral responses even when gape-limited predators are relatively small
|Title||Are you scared yet? Variations to cue indices elicit differential prey behavioral responses even when gape-limited predators are relatively small|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Wagner MJ, Moore PA|
|Journal||Canadian Journal of Zoology|
|Pagination||583 - 595|
Anti-predator behavior is often evoked based on measurements of risk calculated from sensory cues emanating from predators independent of physical attack. Yet, the exact sensory indices of cues used in risk assessment remain largely unknown. To examine how different predatory cue indices of information are used in risk assessment, we presented prey with various cues from sublethal gape-limited predators. Rusty crayfish (Faxonius rusticus (Girard, 1852)) were exposed to predatory odors from sublethal-sized largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides (Lacepѐde, 1802)) to test effects of changing predator abundance, relative size relationships, and total predator length in flow through mesocosms. Foraging, shelter use, and movement behavior were used to measure cue effects. Foraging time depended jointly upon predator abundance and total predator size (p = 0.030). Specifically, high predator abundance resulted in decreased foraging efforts as gape ratio increased. Similarly, sheltering time depended on the interaction between predator abundance and gape ratio when predator abundance was highest (p = 0.020). Crayfish significantly increased exploration time when gape ratio increased (p = 0.010). Thus, this study shows crayfish can use different indices of predatory cues, namely total predator abundance and relative size ratios, in risk assessment but do so in context-specific ways.
|Short Title||Can. J. Zool.|